Commodities Latin América


MASCAREY-HYERONIMA CHOCOENSIS








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NOMBRE COMUN: Rosita, Mascarey(Ecuador)
NOMBRE CIENTIFICO: Hyeronima alchorneoides Allem.
FAMILIA: Euphorbiaceae

Distribución
Esta especie crece desde México, Belice a través de Centro América hasta Panamá, y en Sur América, Colombia, Ecuador, Perú y Brasil. En Honduras crece en bosques húmedos del litoral Atlántico, Colón, Gracias a Dios, Olancho, Yoro y Comayagua 

Características organolépticas
Madera de color café rojizo, sin sabor ni olor característico. Superficie opaca, textura media a gruesa, grano predominantemente entrecruzado, veteado pronunciado por el efecto del grano entrecruzado y el tamaño de los elementos vasculares.

Propiedades Físico-mecánicas

Densidad básica
0.63 g/cm3
muy pesada
Módulo de elasticidad
122641 kg/cm2
medio
Movimiento
4.93 %
alto
Cizalle
96 kg/cm2
medio
Relación de contracción
2.06
normal
Dureza janka
703 kg
media
Punto saturación de fibras
29

Compresión perpendicular
101 kg/cm2
medio
Secado
Es una madera moderadamente difícil de secar tanto al aire libre como en horno, secando a una velocidad muy rápida y desarrollando defectos de secado moderados. Para evitar que la madera pueda sufrir distorsiones durante el secado al aire libre, recomendamos que el secado se realice completamente bajo techo y colocarle pesas encima.

Durabilidad Natural
Es una madera muy durable, resistente al ataque de hongos y termitas.

Trabajabilidad
Moderadamente fácil de aserrar y de trabajar con herramientas manuales, buena a regular para el cepillado, excelente para el torneado, escopleado, taladrado, moldurado y lijado aunque muy difícil de clavar, siendo necesario taladrar antes de introducir clavos.
Presenta excelentes acabados siempre y cuado se utilicen al menos 3 manos de sellador por el tamaño grande de sus poros. Por su belleza natural, el acabado transparente es el más adecuado.

Usos
Elaboración de muebles finos de alta calidad ya sea lineales o torneados, partes visibles de estos, gabinetes, chapas decorativas y carpintería en general. Dado que es una madera muy pesada, recomendamos se utilice para la elaboración de muebles fijos como roperos de pared, gabinetes de cocina y ventanales; para muebles movibles como camas, sillas, mesas, pisos, esquineras y muebles de jardinería, recomendamos minimizar los grosores normalmente utilizados, con el objetivo de reducirle peso al mueble. 







Hyeronima alchorneoides is an important taxon of the neotropical
forest, whose center of distribution is located in the Andes
(South America). It is found from Belize to the Amazon region
and in the West Indies (Brako and Zarucchi 1993, Burger and
Huft 1995, Jorgensen and León-Yáñez 1999, Jorgensen and
Ulloa 1994, Macbride 1951, Molina 1975, Renner and others
1990). Hyeronima alchorneoides is a canopy tree, abundant in
humid and very humid tropical forests.
Hyeronima alchorneoides is a tall, evergreen tree, with a
straight bole and spreading, extended buttresses on the lower
third. It is a tree that may reach up to 50 m in height and 100
to 120 cm d.b.h. The crown is wide and extended. The
branches are subterete and angulous. The bark is fissured,
hard, brittle, and light brown or reddish brown; it is 0.75 to
Part II—Species Descriptions • Hyeronima alchorneoides Allemão 514
0.80 cm thick. Internally, it is pink or red and contains a large
amount of tannins. It has a bitter taste (Burger and Huft 1995,
Flores 1993, Longwood 1971, Macbride 1951). The leaves are
alternate, entire, petiolate (petioles adaxially caniculate, with
lepidote indumentum), and stipulate. The leaf blade is wide
ovate, wide elliptical, or obovate; the leaf apex is round,
obtuse, or acuminate; and the leaf base is attenuate, round,
cordate, obtuse, or cuneate. Hyeronima alchorneoides grows
well in very humid plains that are seasonally flooded during
the rainy season. The species grows in soils that are alluvial or
clayey and acid. It grows where the annual rainfall is 3500 to
5000 mm and temperatures are 24 to 30 °C. The elevational
range of this species is 20 to 900 m (Flores 1993, Franco 1990,
Woodson and Schery 1967).
Hyeronima alchorneoides Allemão
H
E.M. FLORES
Academia Nacional de Ciencias de Costa Rica, Costa Rica
EUPHORBIACEAE (SPURGE FAMILY)
Stilaginella laxiflora Tul. (Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Botanique service 3, 15: 244; 1851);
Stilaginella amazonica Tul. (Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Botanique service 3, 15: 244; 1851);
Stilaginella ferruginea Tul. (Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Botanique service 3, 15: 244; 1851);
Hyeronima ferruginea (Tul.) Tul. (Flora Brasiliensis 4 [1]: 334; 1861); Hyeronima laxiflora
(Tul.) Müll-Arg. (Linnaea 34: 66; 1865); Hyeronima mollis Müll-Arg. (Prodromus Systematis Naturalis
Regni Vegetabilis 15 [2]: 269; 1866); Hyeronima caribaea Urban (Repertorium Specierum Novarum
Regni Vegetabilis 16: 139, 1919); Hyeronima mattogrossensis Pax & Hoff. (Planzenreich 81: 39; 1922);
Hyeronima heterotrichia Pax & Hoff. (Planzenreich 81: 39; 1922); Hyeronima chocoensis Cuatrec.
(Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales 7 [25-26]: 52; 1946);
Hyeronima tectissima L. A. Standl. & L. O. Williams (The Rain Forests of Golfo Dulce 222, t. 29; 1956);
Hyeronima alchorneoides var. stipulosa P. Franco (Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik,
Planzengeschichte und Planzengeographie 111 [3]: 321-323, f. 10; 1990); Hyeronima ovatifolia
Lundell (Wrightia 4 [4]: 134; 1970)
Aguacatillo, ajo-ajo, ajono, ajowo, amapaia, anoniwana, apamate, aricurqua, bois d’ amande,
bois de vin, bois divin, bully tree, cachete toro, cajuela, calun calun, cartan, cartancillo, catatú, cedro
macho, chac-te-cook, colorado, coral, curtidor, dalina, dionkoimata, florecillo morado, horseflesh
mahogany, itahuba blanca, itahuba colorada, katoelienja, licurana, makoeroerian, malangazote, mapique,
mará-gonçalo, margonçalo, mascarey, minua, muiracongalo, nance, nancito, nancitón, okotjo, orocurana,
palo chanco, palo curtidor, palo rosa, pantana, piento-bolletrie, pilón, plátano, quina, quindú canela,
rosa, sagua, scotch ebo, serdani, soeladan, soeradan, sorodon, suradán, suradanni, surdina, tapana,
tapanare, tapierín, tarroema, teloko-enoeroe, tinto morado, tokadie-ballie, torito, troko-enoeroe,
trompillo, urucurana, urucurana de leite, urucurana miri, waikwabia, win oudou, zapatero
(Flores 1993, Franco 1990, Longwood 1971)
In green wood, the sapwood is reddish brown or pink
while the heartwood is dark red, reddish brown, or deep
brown, being similar to black walnut (Juglans nigra) in appearance
(Flores 1993, Longwood 1971). The growth rings are outlined
by dark terminal bands formed by thick-walled fibers. It
has straight or interlocked grain depending on the site of
species origin; wood with interlocked grain has a striped or
ribbon-like appearance. Texture is moderately coarse and has
low luster; the dry wood is odorless and tasteless. The wood is
strong and heavy (green weight 1100 to 1150 kg per m3; with
85 to 90 percent moisture content; basic specific gravity is 0.60
to 0.65), which is comparable to pignut hickory (Carya ovata
[Mill.] K. Koch) and white oak (Quercus alba L.) (Llach 1971,
Longwood 1971, Van der Slooten and others 1971). The wood
has moderately high shrinkage compared with woods of similar
density and is comparable to white oak in directional and
volumetric shrinkage (5.1 to 5.3 percent radially, 9.2 to 94 percent
tangentially, 13.3 to 14.5 volumetrically from green to
oven-dry). Strength properties are normal in green and air-dry
conditions except for deficiencies in work-to-maximum-load
(shock resistance), compression and tension across the grain
(crushing strength and hardness), and cleavage (splitting). It
bends moderately well except in shock resistance, comparable
to sweet birch (Betula lenta L.) (Longwood 1971). Wood airdrying
is fast and easy; however, 38 to 40 percent of wood
pieces develop twisting, and 30 percent of them collapse. It
has excellent sanding, boring, and mortising properties; very
good turning properties; good shaping properties; and poor
planing properties. With the exception of planing, wood
machining is above the average for 25 domestic hardwoods in
the United States (Davis 1949, Longwood 1971). The wood is
moderately difficult to work because of its poor planing properties;
shallow chipped grain during planing is frequent, and
the wood must be scraped well to achieve a smooth finish
(Longwood 1971). During brushing, 30 percent of pieces
develop a fibrillar appearance and rough grain; 40 percent
develop a smooth and flawless surface (Llach 1971). The wood
is durable and resistant to termites and white- and brown-rot
fungi at ground level but is susceptible to wood-decomposing
fungi attacks at underground levels (Llach 1971, Longwood
1971, Wangaard and others 1955). The wood can be used in
marine pilings, general heavy construction (interior and exterior),
furniture, cabinetwork, decorative veneer, framework,
rafters, sheathing in building construction, boat construction,
structures for bridges and fences, stakes, barrel construction,
and railway ties (Llach 1971, Longwood 1971). The Peteri’s
coefficient of flexibility is 65, and the Runkel factor is 0.91
[group III: good for making paper (Llach 1971)].
The species is dioecious, and the flowers, unisexual. The
tree blooms twice a year, and the primary period of flowering
515 Part II—Species Descriptions • Hyeronima alchorneoides Allemão
occurs from May to July, with a peak in June. The flowering
can vary with rain patterns and range of geographical distribution.
Sometimes the species blooms in November, December,
or January. The flowers, grouped in axillary panicles of a
variable size and number of lateral branches, are inconspicuous
and yellowish green. Cross-pollination is obligatory; the
floral anthesis takes place in the early morning and many small
insects contribute to pollinating the pistillate flowers. Fruits
are produced from January to March, sometimes in April. The
fruit is drupaceous and turns red or dark purple at maturity.
The surface is bright and almost glabrous. The exocarp is thin
and membranaceous; the mesocarp is fleshy, soft, and sweet.
The endocarp is hard and sclerenchymatous and surrounds
the only seed developed in the fruit (Flores 1993). The ripe
fruits fall by gravity, alone or in clusters. Birds and monkeys
are the main commensals and dispersers. It is possible that
seed passage through the bird or monkey digestive system promotes
seed germination through endocarp scarification. Seeds
are small.
Seeds average 26,400 to 26,500 (seed + endocarp) per
kg, with 67 percent moisture content (fresh weight). The percentage
of germination is 60 to 70 percent, but varies strongly
depending on seed origin. Seeds are viable for 10 to 15 days if
moisture and temperature are adequate.
Seed behavior seems recalcitrant and information on
seed storage is nonexistent. The species germinates and grows
in clearings and well-illuminated places. Seedlings and
saplings are not common in the forest understory. Red ants
(Atta cephalotes), the larvae of Hylesia alinda, and other herbivores
—deer, mountain goats, and rabbits—attack them. Germination
is epigeal and seedlings are phanerocotylar. Under
greenhouse conditions, germination occurs at 25 to 30 days; it
is gradual. Initially the cotyledons are enclosed in the seedcoat
(60 percent of seedlings) but the latter is removed at 45 to 50
days (Arias 1992, Flores 1993).
The species grows well in plantations and has been
planted in monospecific plantations with a planting distance of
3 by 3 m. Holes must be 15 cm deep and seedlings must be
transplanted in adobe (keeping the surrounding substrate).
Plantations must be cleared three to four times during the first
year. Seedling mortality in plantations is low, and the species
has an efficient autopruning system; however, branches must
be trimmed at 9 to 12 months later (Arias 1992, Flores 1993,
González 1991). In the Sarapiquí zone (Costa Rica), the annual
increase in height is 1.6 m during the first 3 years; diameter
increases 2.2 cm annually. About 80 percent of trees have a
straight and vigorous bole (Arias 1992, González 1991).
The species is not susceptible to pests and diseases, but
several animals predate young seedlings and saplings. Shoot
apex damage induces stem bifurcation (Flores 1993).
H
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
Hyeronima alchorneoides is the type species of the genus. It
was named Hyeronima as homage to Jeronimo Serpa, a Brazilian
botanist (Flores 1993, Franco 1990).
The leaf’s adaxial surface has scarce pubescence (multicellular
hairs); the abaxial surface has a densely lepidote indumentum.
Venation is pinnate brochidrodromous, with 6 to 12
secondary veins. The midrib is wide, straight, and projects
toward the abaxial surface. Secondary veins are parallel and
uniformly spaced with a moderate and uniform divergence
angle; they branch toward the margin. Tertiary veins are percurrent,
branched, and projected abaxially. The leaf is hypostomatic,
and the stomata are paracytic. Stipules are variable in
shape but always conspicuous, foliaceous, petiolate or sessile,
quite permanent, basally wide, fleshy, and commonly inhabited
by ants (Flores 1993).
The flower bracts subtending the inflorescence branches
tend to be morphologically different from those of the vegetative
axes; the proximal are large and foliaceous while the
distal are short, triangular, and deltoid. The staminate panicles
are corymboid and pedunculate with straight or curved
branches. The peduncle is terete and 2 to 4 cm long. Floral
Part II—Species Descriptions • Hyeronima alchorneoides Allemão 516
bracts are trulate-cocleate. The male flowers have a tetramerous
calyx, cupuliform, gamosepalous in the basal third,
toothed distally, and densely lepidoted. The disc is annular and
massive with a villous margin; stamens are within the disc and
the androecium consists of four fertile stamens, sometimes
five; anther lobes are pendulous and divergent during the
anthesis, and dehiscence is poricidal. The connective is glandular.
Pollen grains are tricolporate and perprolate (Flores
1993). The pistillate flower has a short peduncle and a calyx
similar to that of the staminate flower, but the annular disc is
smaller. The ovary is ovoid, bicarpelar, and covered by peltate
scales; each locule contains two ovules; only one develops as a
seed. The interlocular septum usually moves toward the cavity
with the abortive ovule. The style is vestigial, and the stigma is
punctiform and bifid. Ovules are anatropous, bitegmic, and
crassinucellate and have an obturator (Flores 1993).
The seed funiculus is vestigial; the testa, thin; and the
tegmen, sclerotic. Seed size correlates with fruit size. The seed
is endospermic; the endosperm is nuclear but becomes cellular
and oily later. The embryo is large in respect to seed size; it is
straight, with a small radicle and thin, extended cotyledons.
The seeds are rich in lipids (Flores 1993).
H
517 Part II—Species Descriptions • Hyeronima alchorneoides Allemão
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R.Q. S. LOGS FROM ECUADOR

40 A 90 CMTS. DE DIAMETRO
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